User dandruff causes symptoms and traetment

Description: Common in cold weather or from using hot water for hair washing.

Causes of Dandruff

  1. Dry Skin:

    • Description: Common in cold weather or from using hot water for hair washing.
    • Symptoms: Small, dry, white flakes.
  2. Seborrheic Dermatitis:

    • Description: A skin condition affecting oily areas.
    • Symptoms: Greasy, yellowish flakes; red, oily skin covered with flaky scales.
  3. Malassezia Yeast:

    • Description: A fungus naturally found on the scalp that can grow excessively.
    • Symptoms: Itchy, flaky scalp.
  4. Sensitivity to Hair Products (Contact Dermatitis):

    • Description: Allergic reactions to certain ingredients in hair care products.
    • Symptoms: Red, itchy, and flaky scalp.
  5. Infrequent Shampooing:

    • Description: Lack of regular washing leads to oil and skin cell buildup.
    • Symptoms: Visible flakes and an oily scalp.
  6. Skin Conditions:

    • Examples: Psoriasis, eczema.
    • Symptoms: Red, inflamed patches with thick, silvery scales (psoriasis); itchy, flaky patches (eczema).
  7. Diet and Stress:

    • Description: Poor nutrition and high stress levels can exacerbate dandruff.
    • Symptoms: Vary based on individual conditions.
  8. Weather Conditions:

    • Description: Dry air in winter or high humidity in summer can affect the scalp.
    • Symptoms: Dry flakes (in winter) or greasy flakes (in summer).

Symptoms of Dandruff

  • Flakes: White or yellow flakes on the scalp, hair, shoulders, and clothing.
  • Itchiness: Persistent itching of the scalp.
  • Scalp Irritation: Redness and soreness in severe cases.
  • Dry or Oily Scalp: Depending on the underlying cause, the scalp can be either dry or oily.
  • Worsening Symptoms in Certain Conditions: Symptoms might worsen in winter or due to stress.

Treatment of Dandruff

Over-the-Counter Treatments

  1. Medicated Shampoos:

    • Zinc Pyrithione: Brands like Head & Shoulders.
      • Function: Antibacterial and antifungal.
    • Ketoconazole: Brands like Nizoral A-D.
      • Function: Potent antifungal agent.
    • Selenium Sulfide: Brands like Selsun Blue.
      • Function: Reduces cell turnover and fungus.
    • Salicylic Acid: Brands like Neutrogena T/Sal.
      • Function: Exfoliates dead skin cells.
    • Coal Tar: Brands like Neutrogena T/Gel.
      • Function: Slows down skin cell turnover.

    Usage: Use these shampoos as directed on the label, usually 2-3 times a week initially. For maintenance, reduce frequency once symptoms improve.

Home Remedies

  1. Tea Tree Oil:

    • Usage: Add a few drops to regular shampoo or use shampoos containing tea tree oil.
    • Function: Antifungal and antibacterial properties.
  2. Apple Cider Vinegar:

    • Usage: Mix equal parts vinegar and water, apply to the scalp, leave for 15 minutes, then rinse.
    • Function: Balances scalp pH and reduces fungal growth.
  3. Coconut Oil:

    • Usage: Massage into the scalp, leave for a few hours or overnight, then wash out.
    • Function: Moisturizes the scalp and has antimicrobial properties.
  4. Aloe Vera:

    • Usage: Apply pure aloe vera gel to the scalp, leave on for 30 minutes, then rinse off.
    • Function: Soothes the scalp and reduces inflammation.

Lifestyle Adjustments

  1. Regular Hair Washing:

    • Function: Prevents oil and skin cell buildup.
    • Tip: Use lukewarm water and avoid hot water that can dry out the scalp.
  2. Healthy Diet:

    • Include: Foods rich in zinc, B vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acids.
    • Examples: Nuts, seeds, fish, whole grains, leafy greens.
  3. Stay Hydrated:

    • Function: Keeps your skin and scalp well-moisturized from within.
  4. Manage Stress:

    • Activities: Yoga, meditation, exercise.
    • Function: Reduces stress that can trigger dandruff.

Professional Treatment

  1. Dermatologist Consultation:
    • Prescription Treatments: Stronger antifungal shampoos, topical corticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors.
    • Possible Conditions: If dandruff is related to psoriasis, eczema, or other skin conditions, appropriate treatments will be prescribed.


Dandruff can be caused by dry skin, seborrheic dermatitis, Malassezia yeast, sensitivity to hair products, infrequent shampooing, skin conditions, diet, stress, and weather conditions. Symptoms include white or yellow flakes, itchiness, scalp irritation, and either a dry or oily scalp. Treatments involve using medicated shampoos with active ingredients like zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole, selenium sulfide, salicylic acid, and coal tar. Home remedies such as tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar, coconut oil, and aloe vera can also help. Maintaining a healthy diet, managing stress, and consulting a dermatologist for severe cases are essential for effective management.